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Journal of Information and Communication Technology (JICT) Vol. 16, No. 1, June 2017

Mohd Suffian Sulaiman, Sharifalillah Nordin & Nursuriati Jamil
 
Haslinda Hassan, Mohd Herry Mohd Nasir, Norhaiza Khairudin & Iskandar Adon
 
Zulaile Mabni, Rohaya Latip, Hamidah Ibrahim & Azizol Abdullah
 
Mohammed Saleh Hassouna, Noraidah Sahari & Amirah Ismail
 
Hayfa Yousef Abuaddous, Mohd Zalisham Jali & Nurlida Basir
 
Sulfeeza Mohd Drus, Siti Salbiah Mohamed Shariff & Marini Othman
 
Wahyu Catur Wibowo & Widodo
 
Qurban Ali Memon
 
Rohit Thanki, Ved Vyas Dwivedi & Komal Borisagar
 
Nova Ahmed, Fajilatun Nahar & A.M. Masudul Haque
 

 
AN OBJECT PROPERTIES FILTER FOR MULTI-MODALITY ONTOLOGY SEMANTIC IMAGE RETRIEVAL
Mohd Suffian Sulaiman, Sharifalillah Nordin & Nursuriati Jamil
Centre for Computer Science Studies
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
suffian@tmsk.uitm.edu.my; sharifa@tmsk.uitm.edu.my; liza@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Ontology is a semantic technology that provides the possible approach to bridge the issue on semantic gap in image retrieval between low-level visual features and high-level human semantic. The semantic gap occurs when there is a discrepancy between the information that is extracted from visual data and the text description. In other words, there is a difference between the computational representation in machine and human natural language. In this paper, an ontology has been utilized to reduce the semantic gap by developing a multi-modality ontology image retrieval with the enhancement of a retrieval mechanism by using the object properties filter. To achieve this, a multi-modality ontology semantic image framework was proposed, comprising of four main components which were resource identification, information extraction, knowledge-based construction and retrieval mechanism. A new approach, namely object properties filter is proposed by customizing the semantic image retrieval algorithm and the graphical user interface to facilitate the user to engage with the machine i.e. computers, in order to enhance the retrieval performance. The experiment results showed that the proposed approach delivered better results compared to the approach that did not use the object properties filter based on probability precision measurement.
 
Keywords: Multi-modality ontology, semantic image retrieval, object properties, semantic gap, object properties filter.
 

 
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLOUD COMPUTING ADOPTION IN SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
Haslinda Hassan, Mohd Herry Mohd Nasir, Norhaiza Khairudin & Iskandar Adon
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
lynn@uum.edu.my; herry@uum.edu.my; norhaiza@uum.edu.my; iskan975@uum.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Cloud computing offers information technology (IT) infrastructure, platform, and various applications via the Internet with minimum start-up cost, network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources, and pay-per-use services. Although the potential for cloud computing is evident and much of the extant research has been carried out on cloud computing adoption, empirical studies on the factors that influence cloud computing adoption in the Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are, however, lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence cloud computing adoption by the SMEs. We conducted a quantitative survey-based study to examine the relationship between perceived benefits, top management support, IT resources, external pressure, and cloud computing adoption. A free-form comment provided at the end of each section of the survey questionnaire was treated as qualitative data. We find that IT resources and external pressure significantly influence cloud computing adoption. Nonetheless, there is not enough evidence to support perceived benefits and top management support as significant factors of cloud computing adoption.
 
Keywords: Cloud computing, TOE framework, IOS model, SMEs.
 

 
A HIGH AVAILABILITY CLUSTER-BASED REPLICA CONTROL PROTOCOL IN DATA GRID
1Zulaile Mabni, 3Rohaya Latip, 2Hamidah Ibrahim & 1Azizol Abdullah
1&2Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology and
3Institute for Mathematical Research (INSPEM)
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
zulaile@tmsk.uitm.edu.my; rohayalt@upm.edu.my; hamidah.ibrahim@upm.edu.my; azizol@upm.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Data replication is widely used to provide high data availability, and increase the performance of the distributed systems. Many replica control protocols have been proposed in distributed and grid environments that achieved both high performance and availability. However, the previously proposed protocols still require a bigger number of replicas for read and write operations which are not suitable for a large scale system such as data grid. In this paper, a new replica control protocol called Clusteringbased Hybrid (CBH) has been proposed for managing the data in grid environments. We analyzed the communication cost and data availability for the operations and compared CBH protocol with recently proposed replica control protocols called Dynamic Hybrid (DH) protocol and Diagonal Replication in 2D Mesh (DR2M) protocol. To evaluate CBH protocol, a simulation model was implemented using Java. Our results show that for the read operations, CBH protocol improves the performance of communication cost and data availability compared to the DH and DR2M protocols.

Key words: Data replication, grid computing, data availability, communication cost.
 

 
UNIVERSITY WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY FOR TOTALLY BLIND USERS
Mohammed Saleh Hassouna, Noraidah Sahari & Amirah Ismail
Faculty of Information Science and Technology
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
mshassona@gmail.com; nsa@ukm.edu.my; amirahismail@ukm.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Researchers have discovered significant faults in the accessibility of university websites, especially for visually-impaired users. To determine the requirements for totally blind users, this study conducted a comprehensive literature review and accessibility evaluation on 15 Palestinian university websites. The determined factors were used in designing an accessible web page prototype. An online questionnaire was constructed to evaluate the accessibility of the prototype from the blind users’ perspective. From the evaluation of 16 blind participants, it was found that the prototype was highly accessible (mean score 4.19). The regression analysis test was utilised to determine the relationship between the items and the main principles of accessibility. The results show that there are statistically significant differences between these items. In conclusion, the accessibility factors have been indirectly validated.

Keywords: Web accessibility, totally blind, WCAG 2.0, prototype evaluation.
 

 
QUANTITATIVE METRIC FOR RANKING WEB ACCESSIBILITY BARRIERS BASED ON THEIR SEVERITY
Hayfa Yousef Abuaddous, Mohd Zalisham Jali & Nurlida Basir
Faculty of Science & Technology
Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
haddose@yahoo.com; zalisham@usim.edu.my; nurlida@usim.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Web accessibility aims at providing disabled users with a barrierfree user experience so they can use and contribute to the Web more effectively. However, not all websites comply with WCAG 2.0 which results in Web accessibility barriers in websites. Thus, assistive technologies such as screen readers would not be able to interpret the presented contents on the monitor due to these barriers and this will contribute to making websites inaccessible to disabled users. This paper proposed an innovative metric that assigns measurable weight to each identified barrier based on its severity and impacts on the accessibility level, and then ranks the barriers accordingly. Following, Web developers can fix the highly ranked severe barriers instead of wasting time in studying and fixing less severe types of barriers that may rarely occur. An experiment was conducted to check the metric validity. We found the metric was valid and thereby we suggested the usage of the metric as a valid scientific measurement.

Keywords: Web accessibility barrier, WCAG 2.0, WABS metric, automated tools, A-Checker, disabled users.
 

 
KNOWLEDGE AUDIT FRAMEWORK : A CASE STUDY OF THE MALAYSIAN ELECTRICITY SUPPLY INDUSTRY
Sulfeeza Mohd Drus, Siti Salbiah Mohamed Shariff & Marini Othman
Department of Information Systems
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia
sulfeeza@uniten.edu.my; sitisalbiah@uniten.edu.my; marini@uniten.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Literature has concurred that knowledge audit promotes efficient management and exploitation of organizational knowledge. Due to the distinctive business environment of the electricity supply industry, the existing knowledge audit frameworks may not be suitable to be adopted ‘as-they-are’ by the industry. In this context, this research has proposed a knowledge audit framework that is specifically tailored to the environment of the electricity supply industry. Two main electricity companies in Malaysia were selected as the case companies for this research. The proposed knowledge audit framework aims to present a holistic way of assessing and analyzing the current knowledge environment of the electricity supply industry in Malaysia. The outcomes of the knowledge audit exercise could be used in developing a knowledge strategy that is aligned with the business strategies of the electricity companies.

Keywords: Knowledge audit, knowledge management, knowledge strategy, electricity supply industry.
 

 
HASHTAG AND HIGHEST SCORED TERMS FOR EXPANDING QUERY
1Wahyu Catur Wibowo & 2Widodo
1Faculty of Computer Science
University of Indonesia, Indonesia
2Study Program of Informatics Engineering Education
Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia
wibowo@cs.ui.ac.id; widodo@unj.ac.id 
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Communicating in short messages, such as using microblogs, was becoming more popular currently. Twitter https://twitter.com supports microblogs and retrieval of the blogs by users. To retrieve Twitter documents, we need specific strategies due to its specific characteristics. One new strategy for improving the effectiveness of twitter document retrieval is using the query expansion technique. This paper elaborates query expansion in twitter document retrieval by using the hashtag. We compared the effectiveness of query expansion in four different scenarios: the baseline result using no query expansion, highest scoredterm in terms of frequency-inverse document frequency (tfidf), maximum hashtag occurance, and combination of the highest scored-term and the maximum hashtag. The results show that the combination of the maximum term in tfidf and the maximum hashtag performs better in retrieving relevant documents than the baseline.

Keywords: Query expansion, maximum hashtag, maximum term.
 

 
NEURAL NETWORK-BASED DOUBLE ENCRYPTION FOR JPEG2000 IMAGES
Qurban Ali Memon
College of Engineering
United Arab Emirates University
qurban.memon@uaeu.ac.ae
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
The JPEG2000 is the more efficient next generation coding standard than the current JPEG standard. It can code files witless visual loss, and the file format is less likely to be affected by system file or bit errors. On the encryption side, the current 128-bit image encryption schemes are reported to be vulnerable to brute force. So there is a need for stronger schemes that not only utilize the efficient coding structure of the JPEG2000, but also apply stronger encryption with better key management. This research investigated a two-layer 256-bit encryption technique proposed for the JPEG2000 compatible images. In the first step, the technique used a multilayer neural network with a 128-bit key to generate single layer encrypted sequences. The second step used a cellular neural network with a different 128-bit key to finally generate a two-layer encrypted image. The projected advantages were compatible with the JPEG2000, 256-bit long key, managing each 128-bit key at separate physical locations, and flexible to opt for a single or a two-layer encryption. In order to test the proposed encryption technique for robustness, randomness tests on random sequences, correlation and histogram tests on encrypted images were conducted. The results show that random sequences pass the NIST statistical tests and the 0/1 balancedness test; the bit sequences are decorrelated, and the histogram of the resulting encrypted images is fairly uniform with the statistical properties of those of the white noise.

Keywords: JPEG2000 image, neural network, random sequence, cellular neural network, block cipher.
 

 
ROBUST WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE USING DIFFERENT WAVELET DECOMPOSITION LEVELS FOR SIGNATURE IMAGE PROTECTION
1Rohit Thanki, 2Ved Vyas Dwivedi & 3Komal Borisagar
1&2Faculty of Technology & Engineering
Chimanlal Ujamshibhai Shah University, Gujarat, India
3Atmiya Institute of Technology & Science, Gujarat, India
rohitthanki9@gmail.com; vedvyasdwivediphd@gmail.com; krborisagar@aits.edu.in
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
This paper proposed a non-blind watermarking technique based on different wavelet decomposition levels for biometric image protection. In this technique, a biometric image is used as a watermark instead of a standard image, logo or random noise pattern type watermark. For watermark embedding, the original host image and the watermark biometric image are transformed into various levels of wavelet coefficients. The watermark biometric image is embedded into the host image by modifying the values of the wavelet coefficients of the host image using the values of wavelet coefficients of the watermark biometric image. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed technique was able to withstand various watermarking attacks. The novelty of the proposed technique is that it is used to transform coefficients of the watermark biometric image instead of the Pseudo Noise sequences or any other feature extraction technique.

Keywords: Biometric image, offline signature, watermarking, wavelet decomposition.
 

 
iFREEPHONY: MINIMALISTIC INTERFACE DEVELOPED FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED AND THE ELDERLY COMMUNITY IN BANGLADESH
Nova Ahmed, Fajilatun Nahar & A.M. Masudul Haque
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
North South University, Bangladesh
nova.ahmed@northsouth.edu;rupafn@gmail.com;saadixl@gmail.com
 
ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT
Touchscreen-based phones can be challenging for people with visual impairment. These phones require special features to cater to their needs when it comes to a developing country’s perspective like Bangladesh. The interface needs to remain simple as well as it must support the required functionalities. It is often observed that touchscreen phones are not desirable for the user community in Bangladesh as it offers a complex set of functions. We have considered visually impaired personnel in terms of physical limitations and the community who falls in the older age limit as our target community. Our user study has confirmed that the visually impaired user community here asks for a simple and functional interface. We have designed, developed, and deployed a simple system ifreePhony that captures the minimalistic features. We have considered both the elderly and the visually impaired community in our user studies. It shows around 36% reduction in search time and around 57% increase in text typing compared to a traditional phone.

Keywords: Touchscreen interface, accessible interface, minimalistic touchscreen features, smart phone in Bangladesh.
 

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